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+Linux Kernel booting process
+using tar to do incremental backups
+using netcat (nc)
Note: netcat (aka nc) is an old tool. ncat is a new one provided with nmap, like netcat with enhancements.

to transfer files from zaphod to zombie, place zombie in listening on port 8888 and then, send file from zaphod

 zombie/usr/home/cmic >nc -nvl 8888 > received_file
 zaphod/home/cmic >nc -nv zombie 8888 < file to send

get a remote shell on zaphod from zombie. Zombie can launch unix command on zaphod

 zaphod/home/cmic >nc -nvlp 8888 -e /bin/bash
 zombie/usr/home/cmic >nc -nv zaphod 8888

see also network pivoting techniques xith netcat or socat
+Unix admin horror stories
+How to Manage Btrfs Storage Pools, Subvolumes And Snapshots on Linux
+Unix History
The Unix Heritage Society : Unix sources, history, etc.
Kernigan explaining pipes, it worth it!
Papers could be found at . Many documents about computing science here.
+Hardware compatibility and free os
+changer de clavier (fr us, ..) sous Linux
  • Si serveur X : setxkbmap fr
  • si pas de serveurs X : loadkeys fr
+Install 32 bits softwares on Linux 64bits
Probleme si on a installé une version 64 bits (et pas une version "32-Bit / 64-Bit Multiarch"). C'est le cas par exemple pour installer Teamviewer v9 (et 10 ?).

1-install gdebi:

 dpkg --add-architecture i386
 apt-get update
 apt-get install gdebi

2-utiliser debi (debi is a deb file installer with dependances !! )

 debi install teamviewer_linux.deb

+Click on Youtube and read on VLC
  1. Install VLC
  2. Install youtube-dl
  3. vlc $(youtube-dl -g $1) &
+Liens Unix & Linux
Linux AuFS? Union File System
Guix package manager
Guix for Fedora, Debian, CentOS?
CDE to package an aplication for any linux
Partition image for Linux
Encore un tutorial chroot
zpaq backup for windows, Linux, etc.
bup a backup git based for Linux
RAM-only PXE boot & the "smallest" diskless Linux box TFTP PXE
imaging solution with TFTP PXE: FOG project
backup tools : rdiff-backup, rsync, rsnapshot, duplity etc.
old Suse versions
gamin to monitor file and directories access
Sysdig to debug/trace a process (see also Systemtap, Dtrace, Dprobes, strace, ..)
Care soft : to reproduce soft environment
Docker articles (a lire)
The Unix Heritage Society [old version of Unix PDP11, ..]
Xwindows & Xming troubleshooting debugging
Cluster Debian avec DRBD et GFS2
Deprecated linux networkin commands [iproute2, ip command]
Boot EFI UEFI: voir ComputingWindows et boot EFI
GPT, UEFI, GUID Partition table
Unix & Linux Free books
GNU/Linux? Free pdf books
undelete files under ext3 extgrep
undelete files under ext3 & ext4 extundelete
Gluster distributed file system
CEPH distributed file system
Small Linux PC overview
Trouble-Maker: a linux training tool
Unix Rosetta stone for SysAdmin?
Shell tutorials

Advanced bash scripting
A plethore of Bourne Shell links
Bourne Shell Quoting Guide
Bourne Shell tricks
How tro write a shell script. Elementaire mais assez complet.
Shell advanced tricks from UnixReview?
Good shell tut.
Shell tips and tricks
Another one is
again another one
Bash Shell Programming tres complet !!

How to install Beowulf [bootp, replication,
Linux Kernel Virtual Machine KVM
Linux on line applications
Terminal Server Client
Linux Virtual Server
Partition image
Virtual Linux (to be updated)
How much Linuw Swap ?
USB Video Class Linux device driver
File system in user space
Linux Soft RAID hosto
Unicode and Unix/Linux?
Undelete under Linux w/ fsdebug
UNIX Administration Hints & tips
Linux Device Drivers [book]
Cours Linux. Applis Linux pour l'Enseignement
Kernel 2.4 internals
Linux Kernel Hacking
Linux Kernel internals
User Filesystem [virtual file system]
RPM repository
Gzip recovery Toolkit
YaoFeng?'s books
Linux Foomatic [CUPS etc.]
Linux Soft distribution
Webmin guide
SUSE Linux website
Linux extended attributes and ACLs
Mise en oEUvre et utilisation
Linux ACLs and inheritance
Linux ACL article 1
Linux ACL article 2
RPM Bone net
How to configure LINUX + ADSL
G4U Harddisk image cloning
Linux extended attributes and ACLs
Linux on line applications
Linux Ipchains
Linux Kernel Hacking
Linux Router Project (dead)
Terminal Server Client
Linux Virtual Server
Partition image
Scyld Beowulf cluster
Virtual Linux (to be updated)
How to chroot Apache under Linux & Solaris
+Reparer une install Linux ou Grub cassee

Avec un live CD, il faut utiliser grub-install. Mais on alors besoin de /dev /proc et /sys. On utiliser pour cela la commande mount -o bind. NB: avec df, on ne voit pas /proc /sys et /dev ; il faut utiliser la commande mount pour cela.

 # mount /dev/hda5 /mnt/hda5
 # chroot /mnt/hda5/
 [chroot]# grub-install /dev/hda
 /dev/hda: Not found or not a block device.
 [chroot]# exit
 # mount -o bind /proc /mnt/hda5/proc/
 # mount -o bind /dev  /mnt/hda5/dev/
 # mount -o bind /sys  /mnt/hda5/sys
 # df -h
 Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
 /dev/hda3             9.5G  3.9G  5.1G  44% /
 tmpfs                 311M     0  311M   0% /dev/shm
 AFS                   8.6G     0  8.6G   0% /afs
 /dev/hda1             9.7G  5.0G  4.2G  55% /mnt/hda1
 /dev/hda5             9.5G  3.8G  5.3G  42% /mnt/hda5
 # chroot /mnt/hda5
 [chroot]# grub-install /dev/hda
 Installation finished. No error reported.
 This is the contents of the device map /boot/grub/
 Check if this is correct or not. If any of the lines is incorrect,
 fix it and re-run the script `grub-install'. 

 # this device map was generated by anaconda
 (hd0)     /dev/hda
 [chroot]# exit

Voir aussi le post sur et les liens dans ce thread qui indiquent d'autres pistes comme

+utiliser lvm : exemple
  • augmenter le volume du LogVol05?

  umount /home 
  e2fsck -f /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol05            #noter le nombre de blocks
  lvresize -L+10G /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol05      #ajouter 10 GB
  e2fsck -f /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol05            
  resize2fs /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol05            #ajuster le fs
  mount /home 

NB: le nombre de blocks sera utilisé pour revenir a la taille d'origine

  • diminuer le volume du LogVol05?
  umount /home 
  e2fsck -f /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol05           
  resize2fs /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol05 <nbblocks> #ou alors option -r de lvresize qui utilise fsadm
  lvresize -L-10G /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol05     #enlever 10GB
  e2fsck -f /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol05

+X11 servers & clients (Unix or Windows)
X2go is a new protocol over a low bandwidth
+X11 security
Ssh -X is not very secure. Put this in you ~/.ssh/config to enhance security. Voir aussi la conférence ComputingSecurity
 Host stokes
      Hostname stokes.comp.prv
      User cmic
      ForwardX11? yes
      ForwardX11Trusted? yes

 Host *
      ForwardX11? no
      ForwardAgent? no
+Debian & Mint installations & docs

systemd docs

Writing systemd units article

 prompt> systemd-analyze time            # boot time total
 prompt> systemd-analyze blame           # services starting time
 prompt> systemd-alnalyze critical-chain # where max boot time is
 prompt> journalctl -b -u NetworkManager?.service #analyze logs of a service

Debian Mise a jour sécurité

 #aptitude update
 #aptitude full-upgrade

Ou bien apt-get update suivi de apt-get dist-upgrade

avec nettoyage éventuel des paquets ...

 #aptitude clean

Mettre a jour un seul paquet (ex: wpasupplicant)

 #apt-get update
 #apt-get install --only-upgrade wpasupplicant

Debian recovering from forgetted root password

  • Boot into grub, select single user but do not press enter.
  • Press e to go into edit mode.
  • Scroll down to the kernel line you will boot from, it starts with "linux /boot/vmlinuz-……."
  • Scroll to the end of that line and press space key once and type init=/bin/bash.
  • Press Ctrl X to boot.
  • mount -o remount, rw /
  • passwd (and type new root passwd
  • sync
  • type ^D to reboot

Install minidlna sous systemd
Sous Debian 8 (Jessie), ajout du fichier pour systemd
 #cat /etc/systemd/system/minidlna.service
        Description=Minidlna service
        ExecStart?=/usr/bin/minidlnad -f /etc/minidlna.conf -u minidlna

Ensuite, démarrer minidlna (par defaut, minidlna.service) et stop pour arrêter :

 #systemctl start minidlna

2016-11-10 12:12:52

reconfigurer/voir la config d'un package debian

Ex: reconfigurer la locale :

 #dpkg-reconfigure locale

Ex: voir comment est configuré le package tzdata :

 #debconf-show tzdata

Voir aussi debconf(7)

Choisir xfce

  • A l'installation, taper sur Tab et ajouter a la fin de la ligne de commande desktop=xfce
ou bien choisir le menu "Advanced options" puis "Alternate desktop environments", et choisir Xfce

When prompted to select the task to install, make sure you click "Desktop Environment"

  • Sinon, en fonctionnement, supprimer Gnome et installer Xfce4


2014-02-26 14:17:53 -- Cmic

Debian WiFi?

Sur Wheezy, petit probleme d'install de la carte Interl 2100 FIXME : Il faut chargerle microcode (firmware), soit à l'install soit après : le Dell D600 réclame le microcode ipw2100-1.3.fw et tigon/tg3_tso5.bin (??)

Voir (pour le firmware Intel 2100/2200)
Voir (pour la config. wifi)

clavier console fr

  • Install de Wheezy ok, mais clvier qwerty. Arghh2014-05-21 16:23:11
  • loadkeys fr ne fonctionne pas
  • dpkg-reconfigure keyboard-configuration : pas glop
  • apt-get install console-setup ; Clavier fr OK

autres sources de packages
En principe plus rapide.. Remplacer par dans le fichier /etc/apt/sources.list
Installation de Mint sur un portable ASUS P2 520LA-XO0456T (by Seb Sauvage)

upgrade debian from Wheezy 7 to Jessie 8

  • from jessie to stretch il faut aussi

 apt install debian-archive-keyring

  • first: backup /etc, /var/lib/dpkg, /var/lib/apt/extended_states and the output of dpkg --get-selections "*" (the quotes are important). If you use aptitude /var/lib/aptitude/pkgstates.
  • second: the upgrade process must not be done under X11 (or should fail...). Use no graphic screen instead
  • third: make sure all packets are in upgradable state dpkg -audit

no packet is half-installed : aptitude -> g to install what is planned to be installed

+weak host model and unix
weak host model and strong host model on linux : "... IPv6 implements a "strong host model" whereas Linux IPv4 implements a "weak host model". In the strong model, IP addresses are associated with interfaces; in the weak model, they are associated with the host...." (pour IPV6, voir aussi Computing section Misc Network)

Sous Linux, supprimer ce comportement :

 sysctl net.ipv4.conf.<INTERFACE>.arp_ignore=1 ou 2, voire 8
+Linux new commands kernel 2.6
  • /sys sysfs nouveau avec Kernel 2.6 en gros idem à proc
  • lspci -vv lecture du repertoire /sys
  • lsb_release -a Show Linux version, code name, etc.
  • systemctl
  • --------------- net tools -------------------
program obsoleted by
arp ip neigh
ifconfig ip addr
ipmaddr ip maddr
iptunnel ip tunnel
route ip route
nameif ifrename
mii-tool ethtool
netstat ss (man ss)

  • dpkg-query -l 'package' /* list package content */
  • dpkg-query -S 'command' /* shows which package includes 'command' */
  • lsblk : list of devices blocks
  • blkid : block device ids
  • hwinfo
  • sfdik & cfdisk
  • strace : traces functions calls of an exec
  • Simple server http pour partager le repertoire courant: python -m SimpleHTTPServer?:9988
  • partclone : clonage d'une partition
  • nmcli : network manager command line
  • Support de exFat (file system >4GB/file, etc: aptitude install exfat-fuse exfat-utils
  • dmidecode : acces to all DMI info
  • lshw utility : acces to all hardware info (constructor, serial, BIOS, vendor, etc.
  • hosnamectl : idem.
  • imvirt script : a Perl script to detect if we are on a VM
+Usefull command line tools
Lots of shell tools, command line productivity, system utilities, media, etc..
dstat & sar: iostat, vmstat, ifstat and much more in one package
htop & iotop: Process, memory and io monitoring.
slurm: Resource mabagement of cluster nodes
ttyrec & ipbt: Record and play back terminal sessions.
screen, dtach, tmux, byobu: Keep your terminal sessions alive.
mtr: traceroute 2.0 combines traceroute and ping
multitail: See your log files in separate windows.
socat & netpipes: Directing stuff easily in and out of sockets.
tpp: Presentation ("PowerPoint?") tool for terminal.
iftop, iptraf & nethogs: To see where your traffic goes.
siege & tsung: Command line load test tools.
duplicity & rsyncrypto: Encrypting backup tools.
lftp: Does FTPS. Can mirror, kinda like rsync.
curl: Everybody's favorite HTTP toolbox.
ack: A better grep for source code.
rtorrent & aria2: Command line torrent downloaders.
calcurse & remind + wyrd: Calendar systems.
ttytter & earthquake: Nice trendy Twitter clients :)
newsbeuter & rsstail: Command line RSS readers.
vifm & ranger: Alternatives to the midnight commander.
powertop: Helps conserve power on Linux.
cowsay & sl: I just couldn't resist. :o)
tig: A console UI for git.
cloc: Counts lines of code.
qalc: The best calculator. Ever. (For scripts too.)
ipcalc: For network assignments.
+Linux Full Circle Magazine